The Republic of Mozambique is a country located in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east. Though agriculture employs about 80% of the country’s workforce, it constitutes only about 20% of Mozambique’s GDP. Most agricultural production comes from family farming operations, which produce the two staple crops of corn and cassava, as well as beans, rice, and a variety of vegetables and oilseeds such as groundnuts, sesame, and sunflowers. However, in 2012, more than 90% of Mozambique’s arable land was still uncultivated.
Fishing is one area of the economy that is immune to rural insecurity. Mozambique’s offshore waters contain lobster, tuna, mackerel, sardines, and anchovies but are best known for the shrimp (prawns) that are an important export commodity.
Mozambique is endowed with rich and extensive natural resources. In 2012, large natural gas reserves were discovered in north Mozambique which have the potential to dramatically change the economy.
Mozambique attracts tourists. The tourism sector is also expanding. The country’s natural environment, wildlife and historic heritage provide opportunities for beach, cultural, and eco tourism. Mozambique’s tourism has a great potential for growth, although tourism’s current contribution to GDP is only 5.6%.
The Republic of South Sudan is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. It is one of the newest countries with widespread recognition.
The country’s economy, as in many other developing countries, is heavily dependent on agriculture. South Sudan’s main crop is sorghum. Other crops include corn, millet, rice, cassava, peanuts, sweet potatoes, okra and coffee. Peanuts are the primary cash crop. There is a considerable amount of livestock raised in the country, including goats, sheep and cattle. Some livestock are raised for export.
The forests of South Sudan yield hardwood timber, such as mahogany and sant (a type of acacia), and softwoods. South Sudan exports timber to the international market. Gum arabic, a water-soluble gum obtained from acacia trees and used in the production of adhesives, candy, and pharmaceuticals, is an important agricultural export. The Nile rivers are the main source of fish, especially Nile perch. Most of the catch is consumed locally. There is the potential to increase the amount of fish that is sold at market and the possibility of having enough fish available to export, given proper support and development of the fishing industry.
There is some production of beer, soft drinks, sugar and other food products. The region also contains natural resources such as petroleum, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten mica, silver, gold, diamonds and limestone.
South Sudan has the third-largest oil reserves in Sub-Saharan Africa. Oil revenues constitute more than 98% of the government of South Sudan’s budget. Despite the lucrative oil fields in South Sudan, there are no working refineries in the country, and oil pumped from South Sudan must be refined in Sudan.
The Republic of Sudan is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by the Red Sea to the northeast and it is the third-largest country in Africa.
Agricultural production remains Sudan’s most important sector, employing 80% of the workforce and contributing 39% of GDP.
Sudan’s main crops include cotton, peanuts, sesame, gum arabic, sorghum and sugarcane. Sudan is a leading producer of gum arabic, a water-soluble gum obtained from acacia trees and used in the production of adhesives, candy, and pharmaceuticals.
The Nile rivers are the main source of fish, especially Nile perch. Most of the catch is consumed locally, although attempts have been made to export fish to Europe and the Middle East. Significant quantities of fish and shellfish are produced from the Red Sea. Rich mineral resources are available in Sudan including asbestos, chromite, cobalt, copper, gold, granite, gypsum, iron, kaolin, lead, manganese, mica, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, silver, tin, uranium and zinc.
Oil was Sudan’s main export, with production increasing dramatically during the late 2000s.
Oil production drove most of Sudan’s post-2000 growth.
Sudan’s manufacturing sector remains relatively small. The country’s industrial base is dominated by the processing of food and beverage products. Sugar refining is a major activity, as are the production of vegetable oil and of soap, the ginning of cotton, and the production of cotton textiles. Other industries include oil refining and the production of shoes, chemical fertilisers, and cement.
The United Republic of Tanzania is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. Dar es Salaam, the former capital, is the country’s largest city, principal port and leading commercial centre.
The Tanzanian economy is heavily based on agriculture. Maize was the largest food crop followed by cassava, sweet potatoes, beans, bananas, rice and millet. Sugar was the largest cash crop, followed by cotton, cashew nuts, tobacco, coffee, sisal and tea.
Export cash crops are a source of foreign exchange for the country. Coffee and cotton are by far the most important in this respect, but other exports include cashew nuts, tea, tobacco and sisal. Once the source of more than nine-tenths of the world’s cloves, Zanzibar now produces only about one-tenth of the international supply.
Several lakes, especially Lake Victoria, are important sources of fish. Tanzania’s industry is based on the processing of its agricultural goods and on import substitution. The principal industries are food processing, textiles, brewing, and cigarette production. Production of cement, clothing, footwear, tires, batteries and bottles takes place as well. There are a number of steel mills and a large pulp and paper mill. The vast majority of the country’s mineral export revenue comes from gold. It also exports sizable quantities of gemstones, including diamonds and tanzanite.
Approximately 38% of Tanzania’s land area is set aside in protected areas for conservation. Tanzania has 16 national parks, plus a variety of game and forest reserves. Travel and tourism contributed 17.5% of Tanzania’s GDP in 2016 and employed 11% of the country’s labour force.
The Togolese Republic is a country in West Africa. The sovereign state extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, where its capital Lomé is located.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy. The country is essentially self-sufficient in food production. It has a well-developed export sector based on agricultural products such as coffee, cocoa bean and peanuts, which together generate roughly 30% of export earnings. Cotton is the most important cash crop. Major crops are cassava, jasmine rice, corn and millet.
Livestock production is dominated by cattle breeding. Cattle, sheep and pigs are raised in the plateau region and the north. Fishing is carried out on the coast and in the well stocked inland rivers and ponds. Most of the catch is consumed locally.
Mining generated about 33.9% of GDP in 2012. Togo has the fourth largest phosphate deposits in the world. Togo enjoys one of the highest standards of living on the continent owing to its valuable phosphate deposits.
There are also reserves of limestone, marble and salt. Large serves of limestone allow Togo to produce cement. The Togolese manufacturing sector was centred on the processing of agricultural commodities and textiles, footwear, beverages and tires. There have been investments in a cement plant, a petroleum refinery, a steelworks and a phosphoric acid plant. Several industrial free zones have been established in Togo, including that at Lomé. Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade centre.
The Republic of Tunisia is a country in North Africa. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent on the Mediterranean Sea. Tunisia’s name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast.
Tunisia has a well-diversified economy ranging from agriculture, mining, manufacturing and petroleum products, to tourism. The agricultural sector accounts for 11.6% of the GDP. Cereals, in particular, must be imported, as must meat and dairy products; sheep, goats and cattle are raised but not in numbers sufficient to supply domestic demand.
The economy depends heavily on mineral exports, especially petroleum and phosphates, a growing manufacturing sector that has received much investment and agricultural products.
Tunisia is an export-oriented country. The principal mineral resource was phosphate. Fertiliser is also an important export. Other major mineral resources are zinc, lead, barite and iron. Although Tunisia’s petroleum deposits are much smaller than those of its larger neighbours, they are significant to the economy.
The industrial sector is mainly made up of clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts and electric machinery. Tourism has become one of Tunisia’s leading sources of foreign exchange and has spawned a vibrant and growing handicraft industry in its wake.
Tourism is also a significant source of revenue and foreign exchange, as are remittances from migrant workers living abroad. Tourism accounted for 7% of GDP.
The Republic of Uganda is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. Uganda is in the African Great Lakes region.
The economy is basically agricultural, and it occupies some four-fifths of the working population. Uganda’s moderate climate is especially congenial to the production of both livestock and crops. Food crops include corn, millet, beans, sorghum, cassava, sweet potatoes, plantains, peanuts, soybeans and such vegetables as cabbages, greens, carrots, onions, tomatoes and numerous peppers.
Agriculture accounts for a large share of Uganda’s export earnings. Two important cash crops for export are coffee and cotton. Ugandan coffee has become both a mainstay of the agricultural economy and a favourite of connoisseurs around the world.
Tea and horticulture are also grown for export. Livestock include cattle, both indigenous varieties and those known as exotics, plus experimental crossbreeds, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens, ducks and turkeys. Dairy farming is another expanding sector with Uganda.
Manufacturing industries are based on processing agricultural products such as tea, tobacco, sugar, coffee, cotton, grains, dairy products and edible oils. Also important are brewing cement fertilisers, matches, paints, shoes, soap, steel, textiles and motor vehicles.
Uganda has 60 protected areas, including ten national parks. Uganda is a natural tourist destination. Tourism is a major part of the economy and ranked third after coffee and cotton in producing foreign exchange.
Uganda has large untapped reserves of both crude oil and natural gas.
The Republic of Zambia is a landlocked country in south-central Africa. It consists mostly of high plateaus with some hills and mountains, dissected by river valleys.
Zambia has a vast land and natural resource base although only about one-sixth of the country’s arable land is under cultivation. The main produce is food crops such as corn, sorghum, millet, cassava, and groundnuts.
Much of Zambia’s cotton, which is used for the local textile industry as well as for export, is also grown by small holders. Cattle are found only in the drier parts of the country with open woodland vegetation.
Zambia has relatively rich fisheries based on its many lakes, swamps and seasonally inundated floodplains.
Zambia’s economy is heavily dependent on mining, in particular the mining of copper. Reserves of copper ore at some mines are becoming depleted, costs of production have increased, and income has fluctuated depending on the price of copper. Copper was the basis of Zambia’s prosperity. Other minerals worked in Zambia include cobalt, gold, and silver, all of which occur in association with copper.
Zambia’s emerald deposits are among the world’s largest and the gem is mined near Luanshya and Ndola and cut and polished locally. Amethyst aquamarine and tourmaline are also mined.
The Republic of Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in southern Africa. Most of the country is elevated, consisting of a central plateau with altitudes between 1,000m and 1,600m.
The agricultural sector is an important productive sector of the country’s economy. The most important food crop is corn. Other food crops include wheat, millet, sorghum, barley cassava, peanuts, soybeans, bananas, and oranges.
Tobacco is still the country’s principal cash crop. Cotton grown by both small holders and large commercial farmers, was once a chief export crop and was also the foundation of a large domestic textile industry.
Sugar is grown in the southern Lowveld. It is exported as well as used as the basis for an important fuel industry, which mixes the sugar by-product ethanol with gasoline to help decrease the country’s reliance on expensive imported fuels.
Zimbabwe is predominantly tropical grassland with a generous tree growth. The only true forests are the evergreen forests, which includes teak and Australian eucalyptus trees which have been widely introduced.
Mining accounts for 10% of the GDP and mineral exports account for about one-third of experts, with some of the world’s largest platinum reserves mined. In terms of carats produced, Marange field is one of the largest diamond producers in the world.
The highlands are known for their natural environment, with many tourist destinations. Victoria Falls is one of the world’s biggest and most spectacular waterfalls. Tourism also plays a key role in Zimbabwe’s economy.
The Republic of Angola is a west-coast country of south-central Africa. It is the seventh largest country in Africa. Agriculture and forestry is an area of potential opportunity for the country. Angola requires 4.5 million tonnes a year of grain but grows only about 55% of the corn it needs, 20% of the rice and just 5% of its required wheat. In addition, the World Bank estimates that “less than 3% of Angola’s abundant fertile land is cultivated and the economic potential of the forestry sector remains largely unutilized”.
Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves with diamonds, oil, gold, copper and a rich wildlife, forest and fossil fuels. Diamonds and oil make up 60% of Angola’s economy, almost all of the country’s revenue and all of its dominant exports. Growth is almost entirely driven by rising oil production.
The country now depends on expensive food imports, mainly from South Africa and Portugal. More than 90% of farming is done at the family and subsistence level.
The telecommunications industry is considered one of the main strategic sectors in Angola. In October 2014, the building of an optic fibre underwater cable was announced. This project aims to turn Angola into a continental hub, thus improving internet connections both nationally and internationally.
The Republic of Benin is a country in West Africa. The majority of its population lives on the small southern coastline of the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea. Though the capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, the seat of government is in Cotonou, the country’s largest city and economic capital.
The main driver of growth is the agricultural sector, with cotton being the country’s main export, while services continue to contribute the largest part of GDP Cotton accounts for 40% of the GDP and roughly 80% of official export receipts. Livestock include cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, horses, and poultry.
Benin’s priority areas for scientific research are health, education, construction, transportation, trade, culture, handicrafts, cotton/textiles, food, energy and climate change. Mineral deposits include iron ore, limestone, chromium ore, gold in the northwest, and marble. Offshore oil was discovered in 1968 in the Sémé field near Cotonou and has been exploited since 1982.
The rivers and lagoons are rich in fish. Substantial quantities of fish are caught annually in the lagoons and rivers, while coastal fishing produces a smaller, but growing amount. Most of the fish is exported to Nigeria or Togo. Shrimp and deep sea fishing are developing, using modern vessels. Manufacturing plants and secondary industries include several palm-oil-processing plants, cement plants, several cotton-ginning facilities, a textile mill, a sugar refining complex, a soft-drink plant, a brewery, and two shrimp-processing plants. Benin’s export earnings rely on cotton, palm oil, cocoa, and coffee, exported to such countries as China, India, and Nigeria. Benin has traditionally imported various manufactured products, machinery, chemicals, beverages, and tobacco, as well as cereals.
The Republic of Botswana is a landlocked country in Southern Africa Botswana is dominated by the Kalahari Desert, which covers up to 70% of its land surface.
The economy is dominated by mining, cattle, and tourism. Botswana was resource-abundant and a good institutional framework allowed the country to reinvest resource income in order to generate stable future income. Botswana’s competitive banking system is one of Africa’s most advanced adhering to global standards in transparency.
The mineral industry provides about 40% of all government revenues with significant quantities of uranium discovered. Several international mining corporations have established regional headquarters and prospected for diamonds, gold, uranium and copper.
Botswana is planning to use science and technology to diversify its economy and thereby reduce its dependence on diamond mining. To this end the government has set up six hubs since 2008, in the agriculture, diamonds innovation, transport, health, and education sectors. Recently, the country has taken a large interest in renewable energy sources and has completed a comprehensive strategy that will attract investors in the wind, solar and biomass renewable energy industries.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa. Agricultural production consists of subsistence food crops, with the surplus being sold as cash crops. Surplus cotton, shea nuts, sesame, and sugarcane are exported, while sorghum, millet, corn, peanuts, and rice are grown for local consumption. Agriculture represents 32% of its GDP and occupies 80% of the working population.
Livestock raising is one of the principal sources of revenue. Animals raised include cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, donkeys, horses, camels, chickens, ducks, and guinea fowl. About 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming, and cotton is the main cash crop. The top five export commodities in 2017 were as follows, in order of importance: gems, precious metals (78.5% of total exports), cotton (8.3%), ores, slag ash (5.8%), fruits, nuts (3.2%) and oil seeds (2.5%).
Burkina Faso’s natural resources include gold, manganese, limestone, marble, pumice, phosphates and salt. Mining of copper, iron, manganese, gold, cassiterite (tinore), and phosphates are done. Burkina Faso is the fourth-largest gold producer in Africa, after South Africa, Mali and Ghana. Manufacturing industry is limited to mainly in the cities and larger towns. Burkina Faso’s main exports in the early 21st century included cotton, gold, livestock, sugar and fruit.
The Republic of Madagascar is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kms off the coast of East Africa. It comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands.
Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot, over 90% of its plant wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The western and southern sides, which lie in the rain shadow of the central highlands, are home to dry deciduous forests, spiny forests, and deserts and xeric shrublands.
Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education, health, and private
enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar’s development strategy. Tourism focuses on the niche eco-tourism market, capitalising on Madagascar’s unique biodiversity, unspoiled natural habitats, national parks and lemur species. Madagascar’s natural resources include a variety of unprocessed agricultural and mineral resources. Agriculture (including the growing of raffia), fishing and forestry are mainstays of the economy.
Madagascar is the world’s principal supplier of vanilla, cloves and ylang-ylang. Madagascar supplies 80% of the world’s natural vanilla. Other key agricultural resources include coffee, lychees and shrimp.
Key mineral resources include various types of precious and semi-precious stones, and Madagascar currently provides half of the world’s supply of sapphires. Madagascar has one of the world’s largest reserves of titanium ore, as well as important reserves of chromite, coal, iron, cobalt, copper and nickel.
The Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in south east Africa Lake Malawi takes up about a third of Malawi’s area After Lilongwe, which is also Malawi’s largest city the second largest is Blantyre, the third is Mruzu and the fourth largest is its old capital Zomba.
The economy is heavily based in agriculture, with a largely rural population. The Malawian government depends heavily on outside aid from the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and other countries to meet development needs.
Agriculture accounts for 35% of GDP, industry for 19% and services for the remaining 46%. The main agricultural products of Malawi include tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, sorghum, cattle and goats.
The country’s strong reliance on tobacco places a heavy burden on the economy as world prices decline and the international community’s pressure to limit tobacco production. Malawi’s dependence on tobacco is growing, with the product jumping from 53% to 70% of export revenues.
The country also relies heavily on tea, sugar and coffee, with these three plus tobacco making up more than 90% of Malawi’s export revenue. Other exported goods are cotton, peanuts, wood products and apparel.
The main industries are tobacco, tea and sugar processing, sawmill products, cement and consumer goods. The Malawian government faces challenges in building and expanding the economy due to high service costs and poor infrastructure for power, water and telecommunications.
The Republic of Mali is a landlocked country in West Africa. Its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country’s southern part features the Niger and Senegal rivers.
Mali’s key industry is agriculture. Cotton is the country’s largest crop export. In addition, Mali produces rice, millet, corn, vegetables, tobacco, and tree crops. Market gardens produce a variety of vegetables and fruits, including cabbages, turnips, carrots, beans, tomatoes, bananas, mangoes and oranges.
Livestock is commercially important; the major areas are devoted for livestock raising (cattle, sheep, and goats). Gold, livestock and agriculture amount to 80% of Mali’s exports.
The most important exploited mineral is gold, a significant source of foreign exchange. Mali has the third highest gold production in Africa. Mali has gold, uranium, phosphates, kaolinite and limestone. Mali is estimated to have in excess of 17,400 tonnes of uranium.
Most manufacturing enterprises process food and other agricultural products or make construction materials or consumer goods, the bulk of production being for the domestic market. Products include cotton fibre, printed cloth, and blankets. Handicrafts are important and the Malians are noted for their clothing, pottery, shoes, baskets, and wood carvings.
The Republic of Burundi is a landlocked country amid the African Great Lakes region. It is one of the smallest countries in Africa. Burundi’s lands are mostly agricultural or pasture. Most of Burundi’s land area is considered cultivable and about one third is suitable for pasture. The economy is predominantly agricultural accounting for 50% of GDP in 2017 and employing more than 90% of the population. Subsistence agriculture accounts for 90% of agriculture. Other agricultural products include cotton, tea, maize, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca), beef milk and hides.
Burundi’s primary exports are coffee and tea which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings, though exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Coffee, chiefly arabica, is the principal export crop and source of foreign exchange. Cash crops of lesser importance include cotton and tea.
Arabica coffee traditionally has been a major commodity for Burundi. Tea and sugar are also major export crops. Large areas of cotton are cultivated, mainly in the imbo valley. Some of Burundi’s natural resources include uranium, nickel, cobalt, copper and platinum. Besides agriculture, other industries include, assembly of imported components, public works construction, food processing, and light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes and soap. Industrial activities account for less than one-fourth of the GDP. Industrial activity is limited to small-scale processing and manufacturing plants. Agricultural products such as cotton, coffee, tea and sugar are also processed in the country.
The Islamic Republic of Mauritania is a country in Northwest Africa, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Approximately 90% of Mauritania’s land is within the Sahara.
Until the 1980s nomadic life was prevalent in Mauritania. More than three-fourths of the Mauritanian population engages in traditional activities, among which livestock raising is the. most important.
In numbers, goats and sheep are the most important livestock, followed by cattle and camels. The women dyed sheep’s wool, with which they then braided long brown bands that were sewn together to make tents; also tanned goats’ skins to make water skins. Millet and dates are the principal crops, supplemented by sorghum, beans, yams, corn, and cotton. Seasonal agriculture is practised on the easily flooded riverbanks and in the wadis of the Sahelian zone, upstream from the dams.
The fishing grounds that lie off Mauritani are among the world’s richest. Manufacturing is focused primarily on the mining and fishing industries and is otherwise limited.
Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports. Oil was discovered in Mauritania in 2001 in the offshore Chinguetti field. Mauritania has been described as a desert nation which straddles the Arab and African worlds and is Africa’s newest, small-scale, oil producer.
The Republic of Mauritius is an island nation in the Indian Ocean, located about 2,000 kilometres off the southeast coast of the African continent. The Republic of Mauritius includes the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon. Mauritius is ranked as the most competitive and one of the most developed economies in the African region. The main pillars of the Mauritian economy are manufacturing, financial services, tourism, and information and communications technology.
Mauritius has developed from a low income, agriculture based economy to an upper middle income diversified economy, based on tourism, textiles, sugar, and financial services. The economic history of Mauritius since independence has been called “the Mauritian Miracle” and the “Success of Africa”. In recent years, information and communication technology, seafood, hospitality and property development, healthcare, renewable energy, education and training have emerged as important sectors, attracting substantial investment. Mauritius has one of the largest exclusive economic zones in the world. Important manufactures include textiles, food processing, metal and metal products and chemical products.
Mauritius has built its success on a free market economy. Mauritius is a major tourist destination and is a welfare state.
The Kingdom of Morocco is a country located in North West Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and Atlantic Ocean to the west. A large part of Morocco is mountainous.
Forested areas cover about 12% of the country while arable land accounts for 18%. Approximately 5% of Moroccan land is irrigated for agricultural use. Morocco’s agricultural potential is matched by few other Arab or African countries. In a normal year Morocco produces two-thirds of the grains (chiefly wheat, barley and corn) needed for domestic consumption.
The country exports citrus fruits and early vegetables to the European market; its wine industry is developed and production of commercial crops (cotton, sugarcane, sugar beets, and sunflowers) is expanding. The Moroccan economy remains heavily dependent on the export of raw materials. The industries that recorded the highest growth are tourism, telecoms, information technology, and textile, particularly tourism and telecommunications. Sales of fish and seafood are important as well. Industry and mining contribute about one-third of the annual GDP. Morocco is the world’s 3rd largest producer of phosphorus.
Tourism is one of the most important sectors in the Moroccan economy. Morocco is a country with a rich culture and civilization. It is well developed with a strong tourist industry focused on the country’s coast, culture and history. Tourism is the second largest foreign exchange earner in Morocco after the phosphate industry.
The Kingdom of Lesotho is an enclaved country within the border of South Africa. Two thirds of Lesotho consists of mountains. Lesotho is geographically surrounded by South Africa and economically integrated with it. The economy of Lesotho is based on agriculture, livestock manufacturing and mining, and depends heavily on inflows of workers’ remittances and receipts from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU).
The most important crops are corn, sorghum, wheat, beans, and peas. Cattle products have been exported, and wool and mohair are produced and exported.
Diamonds are Lesotho’s significant natural resources. Manufacturing is a relatively new sector and the emphasis has been on small-scale enterprises; several industrial estates operate small projects, producing candles, ceramics, furniture, and jewellery. Other activities include weaving, canning and diamond cutting and polishing. Clothing from wool and mohair, food products, fertilisers, and television sets are also produced. Urban development has stimulated construction, catering and other service Industries.
Lesotho has taken advantage of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) to become the largest exporter of garments to the US from sub-Saharan Africa.
The Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. Liberia was the first African republic to proclaim its independence, and is Africa’s first and oldest modern republic.
The Liberian economy is predominantly agrarian, and raw materials, equipment, and consumer goods are imported. Production for export is carried out on a large scale through foreign investment in rubber, forestry, and mining.
Traditional farmers practise mixed cultivation of rice, cassava, and vegetables. They also raise goats, sheep, chickens, and ducks. Cultivation of cash crops such as coffee, cacao, oil palm, sugarcane, and swamp rice is increasing. Domestic rice production meets about three-fourth of the country’s needs.
Liberia’s climate is suitable for rubber production. Rubber has become by far the country’s most valuable commercial crop, with coffee and cacao increasing in importance. Several International companies have partnered with Liberia in Rubber production.
Deep-sea fishing is important, and the catch is largely mackerel, barracuda, and red snapper. Kru and Fanti fishermen, the latter from Ghana, have traditionally been the suppliers of fish to coastal areas but are supplemented by Liberian fishing companies. Inland fish-breeding ponds provide a source of protein.
Liberia is rich in natural resources, especially iron ore. Other minerals include diamonds, gold, lead, manganese, graphite, cyanite (a silicate of aluminium, with thin bladelike crystals), and barite. There are possible oil reserves off the coast.
Historically, the Liberian economy has depended on exports of natural resources such as iron ore. rubber, and timber.
The Republic of Cameroon is a country in Central Africa. Cameroon’s coastline covers parts of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Douala is the economic capital and main seaport, while Yaounde is the political capital. Cameroon’s natural resources are very well suited to agriculture and arboriculture. Primary agricultural and forest products provide about one third of total export earnings.
Soils and climate on the coast encourage extensive commercial cultivation of bananas, cocoa, oil palms, rubber, and tea. Inland, on the South Cameroon Plateau, cash crops include coffee, sugar and tobacco. Coffee is a major cash crop in the western highlands, and in the north, natural conditions favour crops such as cotton, groundnuts, and rice. Livestock are raised throughout the country. Fishing employs 5,000 people and provides over 100,000 tons of seafood each year. Bush meat, long a staple food for rural Cameroonians, is today a delicacy in the country’s urban centres. Traditional arts and crafts are practised throughout the country for commercial, decorative, and religious purposes. Wood carvings and sculptures are especially common. The high quality clay of the western highlands is suitable for pottery and ceramics.
Cameroon possesses substantial mineral resources with large amounts of kyanite and bauxite and the cobalt deposits are significant to make it a major world producer. Rapids and waterfalls obstruct the southern rivers, but these sites offer opportunities for hydroelectric development and supply most of Cameroon’s energy.
The State of Libya is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, and is the 16th largest country in the world.
The climate is mostly extremely dry and desert-like in nature. Oasis can also be found scattered throughout Libya. Libya is one of the sunniest and driest countries in the world due to the prevailing presence of a desert environment.
Libya has the 10th largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The Libyan economy depends primarily upon oil and natural gas, which accounted for almost three-fourth of the national income and nearly all of the country’s export earnings. Agriculture is limited and only about 1% of the total land area is cultivated. Cereals are the major crops throughout the country. Wheat is the largest cereal crop.
Dates are the principal crop of the southern oasis. Orchards of almonds, citrus fruit, apricots, and figs grow on small and large farms and on small crowded plots in the oases. Grapes, broad beans, and peanuts also are grown.
Livestock includes sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses, mules, and donkeys. Animals are raised for their milk, meat, and hides or for their services as a means of transportation.
To reduce the country’s heavy dependence on oil, economic policy has emphasised agricultural and industrial developments. A majority of the factories manufacture processed food, cement, and textiles. There are also oil-related industries, which produce steel drums, tanks, and pipe fittings; petrochemical plants are located near refineries.
The Republic of Cape Verde is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean. The country is a horseshoe-shaped cluster of ten islands and eight islets.
Mineral resources include salt, pozzolana (a volcanic rock used in cement production), and limestone. Their small numbers of wineries making Portuguese-style wines have traditionally focused on the domestic market, but have recently met with some international acclaim. Extensive salt flats are found and slopes give way in places to sugarcane fields or banana plantations spread along the base of towering mountains. Only five of the ten main islands (Santiago, Santo Antão, São Nicolau, Fogo, and Brava) normally support agricultural production.
Although Cape Verde’s fishing capabilities are not fully exploited, fish is important for both domestic consumption and export.
Fish and shellfish are plentiful, and small quantities are exported. Cape Verde has cold storage and freezing facilities and fish processing plants. Tuna fish canning takes place in some areas, and the processing of frozen seafood such as lobster has been profitable. Lacking natural resources, its developing economy is mostly service oriented, with a growing focus on tourism and foreign investment. The revenue from the country’s international airports, emigrants’ remittances, and, increasingly, tourism are all important.
The Republic of Namibia is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. Namibia is one of the driest countries situated between the Namib and the Kalahari deserts. Agriculture, herding, tourism and the mining industry including mining of gem diamonds, uranium, gold and silver form the basis of its economy. The large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. About half of the population depends on subsistence agriculture for its livelihood. Namibia must still import some of its food.
Mining is central to the economy. Diamonds, uranium oxide, and base metals dominate mining however, gold and natural gas are increasingly significant, and oil production (offshore and in the Etosha basin) is potentially so. Namibia supplies about 30% of the world’s diamond output.
Commercial farming is concentrated on the production of Karakul sheep and beef for export. Crop raising is a distinctly secondary activity on commercial farms, but it is almost coequal with livestock production on small African family farms.
Despite the remote nature of much of the country, Namibia has seaports, airports, highways and railways. The country seeks to become a regional transportation hub, it has an important seaport and several landlocked neighbours.
One of the fastest growing areas of economic development in Namibia is the growth of wildlife conservancies. These conservancies are particularly important to the rural, generally unemployed population.
The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. The climate of the Central African Republic is generally tropical with almost daily rainstorms in the monsoon season. Agriculture is the largest sector and the basis of the Central African economy, contributing half of the GDP and occupying nearly four-fifths of the workforce; diamonds and timber also contribute to the economy. It has been estimated that up to 8% of the country is covered by forest, with the densest parts generally located in the southern regions. Tropical rainforest covers a significant part of the Central African Republic, mainly in the southwest, and timber exports are a vital source of foreign exchange.
Agriculture is dominated by the cultivation and sale of food crops such as cassava, peanuts, maize, sorghum, millet, sesame, and plantain. The livestock population includes cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry, most of which are reared for domestic consumption.
The growing of vegetables for export has also been supported by the government. Although Central Africans have for some time cultivated sugarcane and oil palms on a small scale, the country needs to make efforts to grow both crops on large, mechanised plantations.
It has significant mineral deposits and other resources, such as uranium reserves, crude oil, gold, diamonds, cobalt, lumber, and hydropower. Central African Republic’s manufacturing sector is small with sawmills, breweries, and textile factories. The Central African Republic primarily uses hydroelectricity.
The Republic of Niger is a landlocked country in West Africa. It is the largest country in West Africa. Over 80% of its land area lies in the Sahara Desert.
Agriculture and agricultural products constitute the largest sector of Niger’s economy. Millet, sorghum, cassava, and sugarcane are the main food crops. Rice is grown in the Niger River valley. Peanuts are the most important cash crop, other important crops include cotton and pulses.
Livestock is an important sector of the agricultural economy and is a major export. Cattle, sheep and goats are raised for meat, milk, and hides. Niger’s known reserves of uranium rank among the most important in the world. Tungsten, traces of copper, lignite, molybdenum, zinc, phosphates, and titanium have been found and are the subject of further prospection. A reserve of iron ore, with an iron content of about 50%, has been located in the Say region; and petroleum deposits have been discovered in the Lake Chad area. The exploitation of plant resources has long been practised but on a small scale. The doum palm and the palmyra palm provide wood for construction, while the palms of the Manga oasis produce dates. Small amounts of kapok (a silky down from the kapok tree, used for insulation, life jackets, and so forth) and gum from the acacia gum tree are exported. Skins of ostriches, crocodiles, and snakes are used for making handicrafts that are exported to Europe. Fish from the Niger River and Lake Chad are exported to the coastal countries.
Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources.
The Republic of Chad is a landlocked country in north-central Africa. Lake Chad after which the country is named, is the second largest wetland in Africa. Over 80% of Chad’s population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Cotton is one of Chad’s important agricultural products. Although it is basically an export crop, the processing of raw cotton provides employment for a majority of those in industry and accounts for some of Chad’s export earnings.
Cotton had dominated the industry and the labour market, and had accounted for approximately 80% of export earnings. Cotton remains a major export. Since 2003, crude oil has become the country’s primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry.
Chad’s livestock constitutes another important economic resource and is primarily distributed across central Chad. Much of this wealth is not reflected in the national cash economy, however, livestock products form about one tenth of exports. The government has tried to improve livestock by introducing stronger breeds and production by building new slaughterhouses.
The Mining industry of Chad produced sodium carbonate, or natron. There have also been reports of gold-bearing quartz in the Biltine Prefecture. Many established industries, such as cotton ginning, slaughtering, and the milling of wheat and rice, are associated with agriculture. Secondary industries are few and rely on imported materials.
Since the early 21st century much of the industrial development is centred on the exploitation and production of oil.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean.
Nigeria was Africa’s largest economy in 2014. Nigeria is the United States’ largest trading partner in Sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil. The United States is the country’s largest foreign investor. Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world and the 8th largest exporter, and has the 10th largest proven reserves. Agriculture used to be the principal foreign exchange earner of Nigeria. Root crops, notably yams, taro, and cassava are the main food crops. Whole grains and legumes such as sorghum, millet, cowpeas, and corn are the staple crops. Rice is also an important domestic crop. Trees, notably oil palm, cacao, rubber trees, peanuts and cotton are the principal industrial crops.
Cocoa beans and cacao trees are the major agricultural export. Cocoa is the leading non-oil foreign exchange earner followed by rubber.
Revenue from mining has enabled the federal government to establish such capital intensive industries as steel mills, pulp and paper mills and petrochemical plants and an aluminium smelter. In the past, large-scale manufacturing was dominated by the production of textiles, tobacco, beverages and cement, which was controlled by foreign investors.
Next to petrodollars, the second biggest source of foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria is remittances sent home by Nigerians living abroad. Nigeria has one of the fastest growing telecommunications markets in the world.
The Republic of Rwanda is a country in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland. It is in the African Great Lakes region. It lies a few degrees south of the equator and is landlocked.
The economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export. Despite Rwanda’s fertile ecosystem, food imports are required. Animals raised in Rwanda include cows, goats, sheep, pigs, chicken and rabbits, with geographical variation in the numbers of each.
Subsistence crops grown in the country include green bananas, which occupy more than a third of the country’s farmland, potatoes, beans, sweet potatoes, cassava, wheat and maize. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export, with the high altitudes, steep slopes and volcanic soils providing favourable conditions.
Rwanda’s mining industry is an important contributor. Minerals mined include cassiterite, wolframite, gold, and coltan, which is used in the manufacture of electronic and communication devices such as mobile phones. The industrial sector is small. Products manufactured include cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles and cigarettes. Rwanda’s service sector is the country’s largest sector. Key tertiary contributors include banking and finance, wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants, transport, storage, communication, insurance, real estate, business services and public administration including education and health.
Tourism is a fast-growing sector and is now the country’s leading foreign exchange earner. Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely and visitors pay high prices for gorilla trekking permits.
The Union of the Comoros is an island country in the Indian Ocean at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastem coast of Africa. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the economy and 38.4% of the working population is employed in this sector.
Corn and coconut cultivation, and poultry projects are developed aimed at helping Comoros achieve self-sufficiency in food production. Subsistence agriculture yields cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas, and mountain rice, but much of the country’s food must be imported. Chickens, goats, cattle, and sheep are also raised. Plantations cultivating vanilla, perfume, coconuts, coffee, cloves, cacao, and other crops cover much of the islands.
Forestry contributes somewhat to total agricultural production, but the forested areas have been severely reduced because of a lack of cultivable land and as a result of ylang-ylang production. Comoros is the world’s largest producer of ylang-ylang, and a large producer of vanilla.
Because Comoros is made up of islands, fishing should be a significant part of the market economy. Its potential has yet to be fully realised, however. The industry exists only on a small scale.
The Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe, is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands of São Tomé and Principe. Since the 19th century, the economy of São Tomé and Principe has been based on plantation agriculture. São Tomé is endowed with excellent conditions for tropical agriculture. The growing season is long, the volcanic soils are fertile, and there is no lack of water.
Consequently, the economy remains dependent on plantation agriculture, especially cacao. About two-fifths of the total land area is under cultivation, with cacao trees covering a little less than two-thirds of the cultivated land; coconut palms cover most of the remainder.
The rich volcanic soil and close proximity to the Equator made São Tomé and Príncipe ideal for sugar cultivation, followed later by cash crops such as coffee and cocoa; the lucrative plantation economy was heavily dependent upon imported African slaves.
The main crop cocoa, represents about 95% of agricultural exports. Other export crops include copra, palm kernels and coffee. Domestic food crop production is inadequate to meet local consumption, so the country imports most of its food. Other main economic activities are fishing and processing local agricultural products and producing a few basic consumer goods, consisting mainly of beverages, soap products, bricks and sawn wood for the domestic market.
The scenic islands have potential for tourism, and the government is attempting to improve its rudimentary tourist industry infrastructure. Some efforts have been made to incentivize private tourism initiatives
The Democratic Republic of the Congo or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Sub Saharan Africa. It is, by area, the second largest in Africa.
Domestic agriculture is the main source of food and income for the majority of the population. Agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing, and forestry combined provide employment for more than three-fourths of the labour force and on average, account for more than two-fifths of GDP. Coffee is the chief agricultural export.
The Democratic Republic of Congo is widely considered one of the world’s richest countries in natural resources.
DR Congo has 70% of the world’s coltan, 1/3rd of cobalt, more than 30% of diamond reserves, and a tenth of its copper. It is a major producer of diamonds. There are both coal and crude oil resources.
Consumption industries produce processed foods, beverages, cigarettes, cloth, printed material, hosiery, shoes and leather, metallic fabrics, and chemical products such as soap, paints, rubber, and plastics. Supply and equipment industries include spinning and weaving plants, chemical factories, and facilities to produce machinery, transport materials, non-metallic minerals, and wood products.
The Democratic Republic of Congo has infrastructure for hydro-electricity from the Congo River and also possesses 50% of Africa’s forests and a river system that could provide hydroelectric power to the entire continent. Because of abundant sunlight, potential for solar power development is very high in the DRC.
The Republic of Senegal is a country in West Africa. Gambia occupies a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, which separates the southern Casamance region. from the rest of the country.
The Senegalese economy has traditionally revolved around a single cash crop, the peanut. The government, however, has worked to diversify both cash crops and subsistence agriculture by expanding into commodities such as cotton, garden produce, and sugarcane as well as by promoting non-agricultural sectors.
Extensive acreage is devoted to millet and sorghum. Agriculture occupies about two-thirds of the economically active population and provides the basis for industry as well. Rice is cultivated both in naturally wet areas and by irrigation.
The climate and the savanna type of vegetation encourage the raising of livestock. Stock raising is not a major source of income for the farmer, however; the meat is consumed locally, and only the hides and skins are exported.
Fishing products now lead all exports in terms of value, the result of many years of building up the industry. The waters off Senegal, particularly those at some distance from the shore have an abundance of economically significant fish. Senegal’s coastal waters are also known for their large variety of fish, unlike most other African countries on the Atlantic seaboard.
Utilisation of mineral resources such as gold, petroleum and natural gas also diversify the economy. Currently the main industries include food processing, mining, cement, artificial fertiliser, chemicals, textiles, refining imported petroleum and tourism. Exports include fish, chemicals, cotton, fabrics, groundnuts and calcium phosphate. The principal foreign market is India. Other foreign markets include the United States, Italy and the United Kingdom.
Also known as Congo-Brazzaville, Congo Republic or simply the Congo is a country located in the western coast of Central Africa.
For the most part agriculture, which occupies more than one-third of the workforce, is subsistence in nature. Cassava is the basic food crop. Sugarcane and tobacco are the major cash crops. Palm, kernels, cacao, and coffee are grown in more modest amounts. Other cash crops include rice, bananas, and cotton. Agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing, and forestry combined employment for more than 75% of the labour force and on average account for more than 40% of GDP.
The central basin is a vast reservoir of native trees and plants. Among these, mahogany, ebony, limba, wenge, agba, iroko, and sapele provide timber. Vast areas of tropical jungle in the north are virtually uninhabited. Congo was based almost entirely on the extraction of minerals, primarily copper and diamonds. Petroleum and mining are the major export industries, followed by forestry and commercial agriculture.
The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on petroleum and support services. Congo’s economy is heavily dependent on the oil sector. Natural gas and diamonds are also recent major Congolese exports. The Republic of the Congo also has large untapped base metal, gold, iron, and phosphate deposits.
The Republic of Seychelles is an archipelago country in the Indian Ocean. The majority of the islands are uninhabited, with many dedicated as nature reserves. Seychelles remains dependent upon imported foodstuffs. But copra (from coconuts), cinnamon bark, vanilla, tea, limes, and essential oils are exported.
During the plantation era, cinnamon, vanilla and copra were the chief exports. Despite the growth of tourism, farming and fishing continue to employ some people, as do industries that process coconuts and vanilla.
Canned tuna is a particularly important product. The main export products are processed fish (60%) and non-fillet frozen fish (22%).
The prime agricultural products currently produced in Seychelles include sweet potatoes, vanilla, coconuts and cinnamon. These products provide much of the economic support of the locals. Frozen and canned fish, copra, cinnamon and vanilla are the main export commodities.
Tourism became a significant industry, essentially dividing the economy into plantations and tourism. The tourism sector paid better, and the plantation economy could only expand so far. The plantation sector of the economy declined in prominence and tourism became the primary industry of Seychelles.
Seychelles has a modern fishing industry that supplies both domestic and foreign markets.
The Republic of Djibouti is a country located in the Horn of Africa on the Gulf of Aden at the southern entrance to the Red Sea.
Djibouti is strategically located near some of the world’s busiest shipping lanes, controlling access to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. It serves as a key refuelling and transshipment centre. A burgeoning commercial hub, the nation is the site of various foreign military bases.
To improve the environment for direct foreign investment, the Djibouti have launched a number of development projects aimed at highlighting the country’s commercial potential. Saudi investors are also reportedly exploring the possibility of linking the Horn of Africa with the Arabian Peninsula via a 28.5 kilometre long oversea bridge through Djibouti, referred to as the Bridge of the Horns.
Djibouti has few natural resources. The government continues to focus on financial, telecommunications, and trade-related services, solidifying the country’s position as an important regional business and trade hub in the Horn of Africa.
As a result, the economy relies heavily on the service sector, which accounts for some 80% of the country’s GDP. Commercial activities revolve around the country’s free trade policies and strategic location as a Red Sea transit point.
The container terminal at the Port of Djibouti handles the bulk of the nation’s trade. About 70% of the seaport’s activity consists of imports and exports from neighbouring Ethiopia, which depends on the harbour as its main maritime outlet. The port also serves as an international refuelling centre and transshipment hub.
Tourism in Djibouti is one of the growing economic sectors of the country.
The Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa with the Atlantic Ocean to the west and southwest.
Agriculture accounts for over 50% of GDP. Rice is the most important staple crop. Rice is widely cultivated on swampland and upland farms. Swamp rice cultivation is concentrated in the lower reaches of river basins. Other food crops include millet, peanuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, and oil palms. The major cash crops are palm kernels, cocoa, coffee, piassava, and ginger and production is carried out entirely by small-scale farmers.
Sierra Leone has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base. Mineral exports remain the main currency earner. Sierra Leone is a major producer of gem-quality diamonds.The country is among the top ten diamond producing nations.
It is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, a major producer of gold, and has large deposits of rutile, titanium ore, iron ore, columbite and platinum. In the west, Sierra Leone has some 400 km of Atlantic coastline, giving it both bountiful marine resources, an ideal place for commercial fishing and attractive tourist potential. Sierra Leone’s many waterways are the home of many varieties of fish, such as bonga, butterfish, snapper and sole. The coastal waters contain such shellfish as shrimp, lobster and oysters.
The national capital Freetown sits on a coastal peninsula, situated next to the Sierra Leone Harbour, the world’s third largest natural harbour.
The Arab Republic of Egypt is a Mediterranean country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge. Egypt is a transcontinental country and considered to be a regional power.
Egypt’s economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum imports, natural gas, and tourism: there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Libya, Saudi Arabia, the Persian Gulf and Europe. The government has invested in communications and physical infrastructure.
Egypt’s economy relies on these sources of income: tourism, remittances from Egyptians working abroad and revenues from the Suez Canal. The Suez Canal is an artificial sea level waterway in Egypt considered the most important centre of maritime transport in the Middle-East, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea.
Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas and hydro power. Substantial coal deposits in the northeast Sinai are mined. Egypt has huge reserves of natural gas.
The main summer field crop is cotton, which absorbs much of the available labour and represents a notable portion of the value of exports. Egypt is the world’s principal producer of long-staple cotton, normally supplying about one third of the world crop.
The information technology (IT) sector has expanded rapidly in the past few years, with many start-ups selling outsourcing services to North America and Europe. Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Egypt’s economy.
The Federal Republic of Somalia is a country with its territory located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by the Gulf of Aden to the north and Indian Ocean to the east. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa’s mainland.
Somalia’s economy consists of both traditional and modern production, with a gradual shift toward modern industrial techniques. Somalia has the largest population of camels in the world. About 80% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralists, who keep goats, sheep, camels and cattle.
Livestock contributes about 40% to GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Other principal exports include fish, charcoal and bananas; sugar, sorghum and corn are products for the domestic market. With the advantage of being located near the Arabian Peninsula, Somali traders have increasingly begun to challenge Australia’s traditional dominance over the Gulf Arab livestock and meat market, offering quality animals at very low prices.
Somalia is also a major world supplier of frankincense and myrrh. The modest industrial sector based on the processing of agricultural products accounts for 10% of Somalia’s GDP.
Somalia has many small-scale plants which include fish-canning and meat-processing plants, as well as factories in the Mogadishu area, which manufactures pasta, mineral water, confections, plastic bags, fabric, hides and skins, detergent and soap, aluminium, foam mattresses and pillows, fishing boats, and carry out packaging and stone processing.
The private sector also grew, particularly in the service sector in trade and marketing, money transfer services, transportation, communications, fishery equipment, airlines, telecommunication, education, health, construction, and hotels with private investments.
The Republic of Equatorial Guinea is a country located on the west coast of Central Africa. Equatorial Guinea consists of a mainland region and an insular region.
Much of the continental portion of Equatorial Guinea is covered by dense tropical rainforest that has long been exploited by the lumbering industry, the most important commercial ones are African walnut, and various mahoganies.
Equatorial Guinea’s economy traditionally depended on three commodities-cocoa, coffee, and timber-but the discovery and exploitation of petroleum and natural gas changed the country’s economic profile. Most of Equatorial Guinea’s cocoa is still produced on the island.
Since the mid-1990s, Equatorial Guinea has become one of sub-Saharan Africa’s largest oil producers.
Substantial reserves of petroleum and natural gas exist under the seafloor of Equatorial Guinea’s offshore waters. Deposits of gold, titanium, manganese, iron ore, and uranium exist but remain largely undeveloped. Petroleum now accounts for the vast majority of Equatorial Guinea’s exports and contributes more than 80% of its GDP. Among the crops grown are cassava, sweet potatoes, oil palm fruit, plantains, bananas, coconuts, coffee, and cacao. Sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle are raised. Fishing contributes to the economy as well, and the timber industry remains significant.
The State of Eritrea is a country in the Horn of Africa. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation includes several islands.
Agriculture is the main economic activity in Eritrea: it is a livelihood to the majority of the people who engage in crop production and livestock herding. It employs more than 70% of the workforce.
Eritrea’s main agricultural products include sorghum, millet, barley, wheat, legumes, vegetables, fruits, sesame, linseed.
The irrigated plantations produce vegetables, fruit, cotton, sisal, bananas, tobacco, and coffee for the growing urban markets.
A big reason for the recent growth of the Eritrean economy is the commencement of full operations in the gold and silver Bisha mine and the production of cement from the cement factory in Massawa.
Given that the ‘Greenstone belt of Eritrea’, which hosts precious and base metals, covers 70% of the country, the Government perceives mining as a crucial part of economic development and encourages additional investments in the mining sector, however with a focus on sustainable mining.
The manufacturing sector is based largely on the processing of agricultural products; goods produced include food products, beer, tobacco products, textiles, and leather.
The Kingdom of Eswatini also known as Swaziland is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. Eswatini is one of the smallest countries in Africa.
Eswatini’s economy is diverse, with agriculture, forestry and mining accounting for about 13% of GDP, manufacturing (textiles and sugar related processing) representing 37% of GDP and government services in the lead – constituting 50% of GDP. About 75% of the population is employed in subsistence agriculture.
A Mixture of subsistence and commercial farming is practised in Eswatini. The staple crop is corn, and other crops include sorghum (mainly for the brewing of traditional beer), pumpkins, beans, peas, and other vegetables.
The largest agro-industry is the cultivation of sugarcane and the manufacture of sugar. Also of major commercial importance are the extensive man-made forests of pine and eucalyptus, which supply timber to a wood pulp mill and several sawmills.
Unbleached wood pulp is the country’s second largest export after sugar. The area under timber plantations is about 6% of the country’s total area. Other important crops are citrus fruits and cotton, pineapples, rice, tobacco, and vegetables.
Commercial livestock farming is also important, and supports meat processing and dairy plants. Eswatini breeds the Brahman cattle which are known for their extreme tolerance to heat and are widespread in tropical regions. The processing of agricultural, forest and livestock products forms the backbone of the industrial sector. Since 1984 diamonds have been growing in importance and are now the second largest mineral export after asbestos. Other manufactures include textiles and clothing, which expanded enormously in the 1980s, beverages, office equipment, furniture, and various other light industries.
The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by coastline stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Johannesburg is the largest city.
South Africa enjoys a relatively stable mixed economy that draws on its fertile agricultural lands, abundant mineral resources, tourist attractions and highly evolved intellectual capital. Agriculture is of major importance to South Africa with a significant portion of exports and contributes greatly to the domestic economy.
The major crops are corn, wheat, sugarcane, sorghum, peanuts, citrus and other fruits and tobacco. Sheep, goats, cattle and pigs are raised for food and other products; wool and meat are important. Dairy and egg production are also significant.
The economy of South Africa was revolutionised in the late 19th century when diamond and gold were discovered there. Extensive investment from foreign capital followed. The major manufacturing sectors are food processing, textiles, metals, and chemicals. Agriculture and fisheries provide the basis for meat, fish, and fruit canning, sugar refining, and other processing; more than half these products are exported.
South Africa has a rich and varied mammal life with more than 200 species, including such large animals as lions, leopards, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, baboons, zebras and many kinds of antelope. South Africa is a popular tourist destination and a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism.
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is a country in the northeastern part of Africa popularly known as the Horn of Africa, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world.
It was the fastest-growing non-oil-dependent African economy. Ethiopia has 14 major rivers, including the Nile. The country has the largest water reserves in Africa. Agriculture constitutes around 85% of the labour force. Many other economic activities depend on agriculture including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Principal crops include coffee, legumes, oilseeds, cereals, potatoes, sugarcane, and vegetables.
Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities (with the exception of Gold exports). and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. The country produces more coffee than any other nation on the continent. Coffee provides a livelihood for close to 16% of the population.
Ethiopia is among the richest countries in Africa in terms of livestock. Livestock has the potential to meet the demands of internal and export markets. Designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business.
Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world. The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some of the less inhabited regions. Other main export commodities are khat, gold, leather products, and oilseeds.
The Gabonese Republic is a country on the west coast of Central Africa located on the equator. There are three distinct regions, the coastal plains on the ocean’s shore, the mountains to the northeast of Libreville, and the savanna in the east.
Although agriculture, mainly subsistence farming, occupies about 30% of the workforce, it plays a small part in the economy of the country as a whole. Efforts to revive cocoa and coffee production brought only modest results, but new projects for sugar refining and palm-oil processing have been successful.
Natural resources include petroleum, magnesium, iron, gold, uranium, and forests. Gabon’s economy is dominated by oil. Oil revenues constitute roughly 46% of the government’s budget, 43% of the GDP, and 81% of exports.
Before the discovery of oil, logging was the pillar of the Gabonese economy. Today, logging and manganese mining are the next-most-important income generators. Recent explorations suggest the presence of the world’s largest unexploited iron ore deposit.
Gabon is one of the world’s largest producers of manganese. Diamonds and gold are also mined in the country, and there are reserves of high quality iron ore.
The Petroleum refinery and its support operations are the main industries. Other manufacturing enterprises, which include lumber processing centres, cement and cigarette factories, a sugar refinery, breweries, palm oil and flour mills, and light electronics and textile-printing factories.
The Republic of the Gambia is a country in West Africa. It is almost entirely surrounded by Senegal with the exception of its western Atlantic coastline. It is the smallest country within mainland Africa.
Gambia has a liberal, market-based economy characterised by traditional subsistence agriculture, reliance on groundnuts for export earnings, a re-export trade built up around its ocean port, low import duties, minimal administrative procedures, a fluctuating exchange rate with no exchange controls, and a significant tourism industry.
Gambian agriculture can be described as a classic monoculture; peanuts are the most valuable agricultural commodity. The production of peanuts has increased with the wider use of fertilisers and ox-drawn equipment and the introduction of better seeds. The most significant industry in the country is peanut processing. After shelling, a large part of the crop is pressed into oil at pressing mills. The residue is used as cattle cake.
Gambia boasts of diverse cultures, history, and an abundance of sandy beaches. Tourism is important in Gambia. The government’s policy is to promote tourism and its contribution to economic growth. The construction industry has grown in correlation with the growth of the tourism sector.
Smaller industries include the manufacture of food products, beverages, textiles, footwear, and wood products. Handicraft and other small-scale local craft production exist in villages throughout the country. Although the country’s small ocean and coastline limits marine fishing, there is some potential for commercial fishing offshore and in the river.
The Republic of Ghana is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rainforests.
National income is derived primarily from agricultural and mineral output, and only to a limited extent from manufacturing and services.
Cocoa beans are cultivated on more than one half of Ghana’s arable land and it is a significant source of the country’s export revenue. The world price paid for cocoa beans directly determines Ghana’s economic fortunes. It is the 2nd largest producer of cocoa globally, and is projected to become the world’s largest producer of cocoa. Ghana produces and exports an abundance of hydrocarbons such as sweet crude oil and natural gas. Industrial minerals and exports from Ghana are gold, silver, timber, diamonds, bauxite and manganese.
Ghana is the world’s 7th largest producer of gold and 2nd largest producer of gold in Africa behind South Africa. Ghana has the 9th largest reserves, and is the 9th largest producer of diamonds in the world.
It also has great deposits of barite, basalt, clay, dolomite, feldspar, granite, gravel, gypsum iron ore, kaolin, laterite, limestone, magnesite, marble, mica phosphates, phosphorus, rocks, sandstone silver, slate, talc, and uranium.
The Ghananian economy is an emerging digital-based mixed economy hybrid with an increasing primary manufacturing and export of digital technology goods along with assembling and exporting automobiles and ships, and industries such as information and communications technology. Ghana was the first Sub-Saharan African country to launch a cellular mobile network connected to the internet and to introduce ADSL broadband services.
The Republic of Guinea-Bissau is a country in West Africa. Guinea-Bissau is heavily forested, with forest cover on about 60% of its land. The terrain is mostly low coastal plain with swamps of Guinean mangroves rising to Guinean forest-savanna mosaic in the east. The economy depends mainly on agriculture; fish, cashew nuts and ground nuts are its major exports. Guinea Bissau is easily self-sufficient in food production, and the majority of labour is devoted to agriculture at the subsistence level; some crops are raised for export.
The economy is largely agricultural, with good prospects for forestry and fishery development. Foods produced for local consumption include rice, vegetables, beans, cassava, potatoes, palm oil, and peanuts.
Livestock includes pigs, goats, sheep, cattle, and poultry. Fish and shrimp, raised for both domestic consumption and export are also important.
Most wood harvests are used for domestic fuel, but the country exports small amounts of sawn wood. The export of commercial items such as cashews, palm products, rice, peanuts, timber, and cotton has long played an important role in the country’s economy. Only a few small-scale industries exist; these include food processing, brewing, and the processing of cotton, timber, and other goods.